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Energy Technology

Fusion Reactors:
A great deal of energy needs comes from nuclear fusion power generation.

Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) ractors use a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) magnetic plasma confinement device. The typical MCF reactor produces 10 mW/m3, at a cost of $10 per mWh.

High Energy Inertial Confinement Fusion (HEICF) reactors use high-energy beams of laser light, electrons or ions to heat and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium. The typical HEICF reactor produces 15 mW/m3, at a cost of $20 per mWh.

Acoustic Inertial Confinement Fusion (AICF or Sonofusion) bombards of acetone and benzene with oscillating sound waves, causing bubbles in the mixture to expand and then violently collapse. This produces a shock wave that causes nuclei fuse together. This form of fusion power operates at room temperatures. The typical AICF reactor produces 20 mW/M3, at a cost of $25 per mWh.

Muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) uses a stream of negative muons to catalyze fusion. A μCF reactor produces 30 mW/m3, at a cost of $50 per mWh

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems (OTECs):
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems generate electricity using the temperature difference of seawater at different depths, utilizing the temperature difference that exists between the surface waters heated by the sun and the colder deep waters to run a heat engine. OTECS are only utilized in the tropical waters. A typical OTECS generaters 100 megawatts of net power. A OTEC produces 5 mW/m3, at a cost of $1 per mWh

As side benefits, the typical OTEC also produces 32 million gallons of fresh water per day and up to 40 million kilograms of fish per year

Lithium Polymer Batteries:
Lithium Polymer Batteries use a polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte resembles a plastic-like film that does not conduct electricity, but allows the exchange of ions (electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms). The polymer electrolyte replaces the traditional porous separator of most batteries, which is soaked with electrolytes. The dry polymer design offers simplifications with respect to fabrication, ruggedness, safety and thin-profile. There is no danger of flammability because no liquid or gelled electrolyte is used. ith a cell thickness measuring as little as 1mm (0.039in), design engineers are left to their own imagination in terms of form, shape and size. Some designs even form part of a protective housing, are in the shape of a mat that can be rolled up, or are even embedded into a carrying case or a piece of clothing. Typical batteries weigh .1 kg per kWh generated, and cost $5/kWh.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells:
Proton Exchange Membrane hydrogen fuel cells can be found in many applications. Both heavy duty and personal fuel canisters are in plentiful supply. Typical fuel cells weigh 1kg per kW generated and cost $50/kWh. They consume 50 milligrams of hydrogen per hour per watt generated; thus, a typical 20W generator consumes 1 gram per hour, while a 120W generator consumes 6 grams per hour. Most fuel cells use an advanced alkali-modified fullerene nanotube lattice to store hydrogen. These canisters hold six times as much hydrogen as a metal hydride canister of the same size, but weigh half as much and has virtually no loss in efficiency with repeated refills.

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Turbines:
Magnetohydrodynamic turbines generate power by taking advantage of a scientific phenomenon called the Hall Effect. In this, a high temperature plasma is forced between two electrodes in the presence of a strong magnetic field, developing an electrical potential between the two electrodes, and generating power. MHD turbines produce roughly 100 kW/m3, at a cost of $100 per kWh.

Reference Notes

Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion (LICF)

Acoustic Inertial Confinement Fusion (AICF or Sonofusion)

Muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF)