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Active Defence Systems

Active Defense Systems (ADS):
Therea are a variety of ADSs incorporating various sensors, prismatic anti-laser aerosol launchers and smoke projectors, non-explosive reactive armor systems, defensive lasers, defensive electronics systems, and kinetic defense systems.

All Aspect Sensor And Control System (AACAS)
The center of all ADSs is the AACAS which uses a number sets of detector arrays to cover approaches to the vehicle. The detectors are multi-spectral sensitive: low light visual, lasers, radars, IR homers, proxemity, and other sensors. The warning system triggers various alarms, as well as defensive systems. It is controlled by a main processor and an array of low-end subprocessors which classify inbound threats and assign the correct countermeasure to defeat it. The countermeasures systems are automatically activated. After a threat is detected, the appropriate countermeasure units are traversed at high slewing rate (over 600 degrees/sec.) aiming at the general directional of the threat. At this stage the target is handed over to the launcher mounted sensor, which performs the ballistic calculations for the final intercept.

Ranged Active Defense Systems (RADSs)
The first system to be activated is the the Ranged Electronic/Laser/Kinetic Kill System (RELKKS). This is designed to be active in the 100 to 30 meter range. It provides self-protection against a broad range of incomming systems using soft kill electronic countermeasures (jammers and decoys) and hard kill active protection systems (physical interruption) to protect a vehicle from direct fire and top attack threats. This system includes a High Energy Radio Frequency/Microwave System (HERFMS), a Laser Kill System (LKS), and a Kinetic Kill System (KKS) . The system activated depends on the threat. The HERFMS kills inbound guidance systems. The LKS kills optical systems. And the KKS launches a projectile in the direction of the incoming threat, to intercept and destroy it at a distance of 30 meters.

Close Active Defense Systems (CADSs)
At closer ranges (30 to 1 meter), the second line is activated. This includes electro-optical IR jammers, as well as radar, UV, and IR decoy systems. The decoys provide false targets to multi-spectral IR/laser or millimeter-wave threats. The decoys provides survivable miss distance against missiles and SFM threats. Also included are 66mm smoke grenade dischargers, chaff rockets, flare rockets, anti-laser aerosol projectors. The ALA projectors release a thick metal oxide vapor which reflects incident high-frequency laser light, while absorbing particle beam energy. The gas cloud released by the ALA obscures LOS for any unaugmented unit. The ALA also has limited radar scattering effects. The smoke grenades are for visible and IR making. The chaff rockets provide radar masking, and the flares act as IR decoys.

Impact Active Defense Systems (IADSs)
The close range (1-0 meter) active defenses include airbag and electric armor. The airbag system deploys a "curtain" down the sides of the vehicle held in place with simple straps. On detection of incoming shells, rockets, or missiles, the airbag inflates, using a carbon dioxide gas cartridge. The warhead is enshrouded in the airbag and slowed enough so the nose-mounted fuse doesn't detonate the warhead. Instead, the incoming weapon collapses and ends up looking "like a stomped-on beer can". The cartridge has to be replaced after one use, but the reusable airbag can simply be rolled up and put back into place. The electronic "charged" armor system is composed of an earthed outer armored plate, a spaced gap, and an inner charged plate a highly connected to a charged capacitor. Shaped charge warheads detonate, penetrate the outer armor plate and the insulation of the inner plate, it completes the circuit, which results in the discharge of the capacitor and the vaporisation and dissapation of most of the the metal jet. The charged plates can take multiple hits onto the same section of the hull without penetration. Power to charge the plates is provided from the powerplant. The electrical system can be switched on or off depending on the perceived threat level, using the tank's internal power supply. Despite the high charge generated by the system, the "electrical load" on the battery is very small.